William A. Woods

Selected Papers and Publications

"Context-Sensitive Parsing,"  Comm. ACM, 13 No. 7, July, 1970.

"Transition Network Grammars for Natural Language Analysis," Comm. ACM,
13, No. 10, October, 1970, pp 591-606.  Reprinted in Yoh-Han Pao and
George W. Ernest (eds.), Tutorial:  Context-Directed Pattern Recognition
and Machine Intelligence Techniques for Information Processing. IEEE
Computer Society Press, Silver Spring, MD, 1982.  Also reprinted in
Barbara Grosz, Karen Sparck Jones and Bonnie Webber (eds.), Readings in
Natural Language Processing, San Mateo: Morgan Kaufmann, 1986, pp. 71-87.

The Lunar Sciences Natural Language Information System: Final Report
(with R. M. Kaplan and B.L. Nash-Webber),  BBN Report No. 2378, Bolt
Beranek and Newman Inc., Cambridge, MA 02138, June, 1972. (Available
from NTIS as N72-28984.)

Speech-Understanding Systems:  Final Report of a Study Group, (with A.
Newell, Chairman, et al .), North-Holland/American Elsevier, 1973.

"An Experimental parsing System for Transition Network Grammars".  In
R. Rustin (ed.), Natural Language Processing, New York:  Algorithmics
Press, 1973.

"Progress in Natural Language Understanding:  An Application to Lunar
Geology,"  AFIPS Conference Proceedings, Vol. 42 (1973 National
Computer Conference and Exposition).

"Mechanical Inference Problems in Continuous Speech Understanding"
(with J. Makhoul), Artificial Intelligence, 5(1), Spring 1974.

"Control Concepts in a Speech Understanding System"  (with P. D. Rovner
and B. L. Nash-Webber), IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and
Signal Processing, ASSP-23(1), February 1975.

"Syntax, Semantics, and Speech".  In D. R. Reddy (ed.), Speech
Recognition, New York:  Academic Press, 1975.

"What's in a Link:  Foundations for Semantic Networks".  In D. Bobrow
and A. Collins (eds.), Representation and Understanding:  Studies in
Cognitive Science, New York:  Academic Press, 1975.   Reprinted in R.
Brachman and H. Levesque (eds.), Readings in Knowledge Representation,
San Mateo: Morgan Kaufmann, 1985.  Also reprinted in Allan Collins and
Edward E. Smith (eds.), Readings in Cognitive Science, San Mateo:
Morgan Kaufmann, 1988.

Speech Understanding Systems: Final Technical Progress Report, Volumes
I-V (Woods, W.A., Bates, M., Brown, G., Bruce, B., Cook, C., Klovstad,
J., Makhoul, J., Nash-Webber, B., Schwartz, R., Wolf, J., Zue, V.), BBN
Technical Report 3848, Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc., Cambridge, MA
02138, 1976.

"Meaning and Machines". In A. Zampolli (ed.), Computational and
Mathematical Linguistics, Proceedings of the International Conference
on Computational Linguistics, Leo S. Olschki, Florence, Italy, 1977.

"Semantics and Quantification in Natural Language Question Answering".
In M. Yovits (ed.), Advances in Computers, Vol. 17. New York:  Academic
Press 1978.
Also, Report No. 3687, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc., 1977.  Reprinted
in Barbara Grosz, Karen Sparck Jones and Bonnie Webber (eds.), Readings
in Natural Language Processing, Morgan Kaufmann, 1986, pp 205-248.

"Theory Formation and Control in a Speech Understanding System with
Extrapolations Toward Vision," in A. R. Hanson and E. M. Riseman
(eds.), Computer Vision Systems.  Academic Press, New York, 1978, pp.

Semantics for a Question Answering System.  New York: Garland
Publishing, 1979.

"Cascaded ATN Grammars".  American Journal of Computational
Linguistics, Vol. 6, No. 1, January-March 1980.

"Multiple Theory Formation in Speech and Reading".  In R. Spiro, B.
Bruce and W. Brewer (eds.), Theoretical Issues in Reading
Comprehension.  Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1980.

"Procedural Semantics as a Theory of Meaning".  In A. Joshi, B. L.
Webber and I. Sag (eds.), Elements of Discourse Understanding,
Cambridge University Press, 1981, pp 300-334.

"Optimal Search Strategies for Speech Understanding Control."
Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 18, No. 3 (May, 1982 ).  Also in B.
Webber and N. Nilsson (eds.), Readings in Artificial Intelligence,
Tioga Publishing Co., Palo Alto, CA, 1981.

"What's Important About Knowledge Representation?," IEEE Computer, Vol.
16, No. 10 (October, 1983).

"Artificial Intelligence," in Lisa Taylor (ed.), The Phenomenon of
Change, New York: Rizzoli, 1984.

Computer Speech Processing, (ed. with Frank Fallside), Prentice-Hall
International (UK) Ltd., 1985.

"Important Issues in Knowledge Representation," Proceedings of the
IEEE, Vol. 74, No. 10 (October, 1986), pp 1322-1334.  Reprinted in
Peter G. Raeth (ed.), Expert Systems: A Software Methodology for Modern
Applications, Los Alamitos:IEEE Computer Society Press, 1990, pp

"Grammar, Augmented Transition Network," in Stuart C. Shapiro (ed.),
Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, Wiley, 1987, pp. 323-333.

"Semantics, Procedural," in Stuart C. Shapiro (ed.), Encyclopedia of
Artificial Intelligence, Wiley, 1987, pp. 1029-1031.

"Don't Blame the Tool," Computational Intelligence, Vol. 3, No. 3,
(August, 1987), pp. 228-237.

"Understanding Subsumption and Taxonomy: A Framework for Progress," in
John Sowa (ed.), Principles of Semantic Networks: Explorations in the
Representation of Knowledge, San Mateo:Morgan Kaufmann, 1991, pp

"The KL-ONE Family," (with James Schmolze), Computers & Mathematics
with Applications, Vol 23, Nos. 2-5, (January-March, 1992), special
issue on Semantic Networks in Artificial Intelligence , Part 1, pp
133-177.  Also reprinted in Fritz Lehmann (ed), Semantic Networks in
Artificial Intelligence, Pergamon Press, 1992, pp 133-177.

"Conceptual Indexing: A Better Way to Organize Knowledge," Technical
Report SMLI TR-97-61, Sun Microsystems Laboratories, Mountain View,
CA, April, 1997. (available online at:

"Knowledge Management Needs Effective Search Technology," Sun Journal,
March, 1998. (available online at:

"Natural Language Technology in Precision Content Retrieval,"
(with Jacek Ambroziak), proceedings of the International Conference
on Natural Language Processing and Industrial Applications (NLP+IA 98),
August 18-21, 1998, Moncton, New Brunswick, CANADA. (available 
online at: http://www.sun.com/research/techrep/1998/abstract-69.html)

"Linguistic Knowledge can Improve Information Retrieval," by William
A. Woods, Lawrence A. Bookman, Ann Houston, Robert J. Kuhns, Paul Martin, 
and Stephen Green, Proceedings of ANLP-2000, Seattle, WA, May 1-3, 2000,
pp 262-267
(Preliminary version: Technical Report SMLI TR-99-82, Sun Microsystems
Laboratories, Mountain View, CA, December, 1999, available online at:
http://www.sun.com/research/techrep/1999/abstract-82.html.  Final
version with author's introduction is reprinted in Sun Labs'
anniversary volume, Sun Microsystems Laboratories: The First Ten Years,
1991-2001, available at:

"Aggressive Morphology for Robust Lexical Coverage," Proceedings of
ANLP-2000, Seattle, WA, May 1-3, 2000, (available at:

"Conceptual Indexing: Practical Large-Scale AI for Efficient Information 
Access," Invited talk at AAAI 2000, Proceedings of the Seventeenth
Nationial Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2000), Austin, TX, 
August 2, 2000, pp 1180-1185.

"Halfway to Question Answering," by W. A. Woods, Stephen Green, Paul
Martin, and Ann Houston, Proceedings of the Ninth Text REtrieval
Conference (TREC-9) National Institute of Standards and Technology,
2000, pp 489-500.  (Available online at: 

"Aggressive Morphology and Lexical Relations for Query Expansion," by 
W. A. Woods, Stephen Green, Paul Martin, and Ann Houston, Proceedings
of the Tenth Text REtrieval Conference (TREC-10) National Institute of
Standards and Technology, 2001, pp 479-485.  (Available online at: 

"Searching vs. Finding," ACM Queue, Vol. 2, Issue 2 (April 2004), pp 27-35.
(available online at: http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=988405, or at

"Lightweight Morphology: A Methodology for Improving Text Search,"
Mikael Roussillon, Bradford G. Nickerson, Stephen Green, William A.
Woods, The Face of Text, 3rd Conference of the Canadian Symposium on
Text Analysis (CaSTA), McMaster University, November 19-21, 2004,
available at http://mediacast.sun.com/users/eelstretching/media/litemorph.pdf.

"Meaning and Links: a Semantic Odyssey," AI Magazine, Vol 28, No 4 (Winter
2007, available at http://www.aaai.org/ojs/index.php/aimagazine/article/ViewArticle/2069).

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Copyright © 2010, William A. Woods. All rights reserved. Last updated March 9, 2010.